So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs


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Published by Island Press, New Condition: New Soft cover. Save for Later. About this title Synopsis: "So Shall You Reap" is a broad-gauged exploration of the intersections of farming and history. Store Description Buying and selling books since Visit Seller's Storefront Terms of Sale: We guarantee the condition of every book as it's described on the Abebooks web sites.

Shipping Terms: Orders usually ship within 1 business days. Add to Wants. Most change, aside from the cataclysmic sort, involved small discoveries adapted matter-of-factly into daily life. After farming societies built civilizations, change in the way people lived was increasingly the result of human actions rather than natural forces. The creation of tools, buildings, and writing produced a record, albeit incomplete, of those actions.

Today we refer to the record, and our interpretation of it, as history. Victorians would have interpreted changes in agriculture such as farmers growing food in order to buy food as a sign of progress.

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Whether it is depends on how progress is defined. If humans are superior to their ancestors, that is, braver, gentler, wiser, happier, and more intelligent, rational, sensible, and prudent, then the many changes they introduced can be called progress. But who can say that this is so? It would probably be more accurate to say that modern humans are more capable of functioning in a modern environment, while their remote ancestors were more capable of functioning in a prehistoric environment. In other words, the changes brought about by agricultural societies are adaptive responses to changes in their physical and social surroundings.

How do the innovations in our evolution come about and what directs them? Most likely they are the result of natural selection. No two members of the same species are identical. Within a given species some individuals are better suited to survive than others because of certain physical and behavioral characteristics. Some of these are encoded in their genes; others are the result of chance occurrences during development.


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Humans and some higher vertebrates have the ability to apply experience to increase the chance of survival and reproduction. In each generation some individuals leave more offspring than others. They pass their genetic characteristics to their offspring. If that success is due to some characteristic provided by a gene, the gene will slowly become more widespread in the population until all the individuals in the population possess it. Biologists would say that the gene has been selected.

However, environments change, and what at one time is a beneficial characteristic can become a liability. That is why evolution cannot necessarily be read as progress. Where the human species differs from most others is in its ability to transmit information to descendants in forms other than genes. Tradition, music, literature, photography, cinema—these allow humans to record information and make it available to future generations. Knowledge allows the species to compete and reproduce. Today education is the overwhelming factor in human dominance. One more point needs to be mentioned.

Natural selection favors the production of the largest number of offspring. Members of all species tend to reproduce as much as possible when given the opportunity. What controls the growth of animal and plant populations is the availability of resources. Whenever a new or better way of obtaining food is developed, the human population grows until it finds itself struggling to avoid starvation.

In turn, population pressure pushes humans to devise new ways to increase their nourishment. Over the millennia, most historical change has come about almost imperceptibly. People have toiled, rejoiced, and grieved since time immemorial. When faced with problems, they have tried to solve them to the best of their ability in order to improve their lot and that of their loved ones.

The result of their successes and failures is human history. With hindsight it becomes clear what people did wrong and what they did right. Our job here is to provide readers with some hindsight so that they may carry on with the work of doing what is right—or so we hope. They ate fruits, seeds, leaves, roots, birds, snakes, frogs, snails, maggots, insects. A given band would consume over one hundred different kinds of plants and animals in a year. The composition of the diet differed from place to place and season to season. To obtain food hunter-gatherers moved from one region to another, camping for weeks or months in one place and moving to another when food got low.

They probably revisited sites every year or two. For most of us such a life would be unbearable. We therefore think that it must have been miserable for our hunter-gatherer ancestors. Scientists have established beyond reasonable doubt that the human species originated in Africa and that it shares ancestors with apes and monkeys.

The details and chronology of human ancestry, however, are far from resolved. The principal source of anthropological information is the remains of the skeletons of human forebears. Scientists have found only a few hundred prehistoric skeletons, all incomplete. Great importance is attached to these meager remains. Where people lived, the kind of food they ate, the climates they experienced, the tools they made, charcoal from their fires, scraps of animal bones and seeds in their camps—these provide additional clues to human evolution. Extrapolating from such scanty evidence, scientists have grouped the earliest hominids, or members of the primate family to which humans belong, in the genus Australopithecus.

Industrialization of Agriculture

Anthropologists have found their bones in Kenya, east Africa, and have estimated them to be about 3. Fossils have also been found of several other species of Australopithecus, for example A. The rainforests that covered much of Africa were giving way to savannas, grasslands with scattered trees. Australopithecus probably lived where forests and savannas meet.

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Scientists believe that Australopithecus walked erect, could run quickly, and was about half the size of an average modern human. Anthropologists believe these early hominids might have been tool users, but there is no firm evidence. Paleontologists first found fossil remains of a species presumed to descend from A. They named this species Homo habilis, which in Latin means skillful man, because of the large quantity of tools such as hand axes and choppers found with their bones.

Homo habilis presumably occupied the planet about 2 million years ago. Apparently they were efficient hunters, using stone tools for skinning and cutting up animal carcasses. Most but not all of the animals were small. In one case elephant bones were found near H. It is possible that H. Meat was clearly an important element of their diet. The presence of butchery sites suggests that these people had a home base to which they brought their kills.

Their social organization might have been complex enough to allow for collaboration, at least to the extent of sharing food. There might also have been a division of labor between males, who hunted, and females, who took care of children at the home camp.

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Sketch of human phylogeny, from Australopithecus afarensis lower figure through Homo habilis and H. Note the increase in size and the shortening of the limbs. Homo habilis used only crude stone tools, while H. The figure on the right represents A. Paleontologists also found remains of a species presumed to have descended from H. Homo erectus was taller and more heavily built than H. He was similar to modern humans in most physical characteristics. Homo erectus was the first humanlike species to leave Africa. Groups of them migrated to Asia. The famous Peking and Java men belong to this species.

Homo erectus first stayed in tropical environments, then invaded temperate areas of China and Europe. No doubt they had to adapt physically and culturally to the colder climates. From inside the book.

ustanovka-kondicionera-deshevo.ru/libraries/2020-08-15/3187.php Contents Early Food Acquisition I. From HunterGatherers to Farmers. Early Agriculture I. Solbrig Limited preview - Solbrig Snippet view - Stuart George McCook Limited preview - Bibliographic information.

So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs
So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs
So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs
So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs
So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs
So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs
So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs So Shall You Reap: Farming And Crops In Human Affairs

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