Muscles


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The muscle groups and their actions

Sternal head: manubrium sterni Clavicular head: medial portion of the clavicle. Acting alone, tilts head to its own side and rotates it so the face is turned towards the opposite side. Acting together, flexes the neck, raises the sternum and assists in forced inspiration. Anterior belly : digastric fossa mandible Posterior belly: mastoid process of temporal bone. Intermediate tendon lesser horn of hyoid bone. Opens the jaw when the masseter and the temporalis are relaxed. Mylohyoid line mandible. Raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid , depresses mandible.

C1 via hypoglossal nerve. Elevates the hyoid and the tongue upward during deglutition. Upper border of the scapula. Sidebend at atlanto-occipital joint. C3 - C6. When the neck is fixed, elevates the first rib to aid in breathing or when the rib is fixed, bends the neck forward and sideways and rotates it to the opposite side. C2 - C6. Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 — C4. Superior part of medial border of scapula. Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula.

Dorsal ramus of C1 suboccipital nerve. C3 , C4. Extension , flexion and rotation of vertebral column. Lateral flexion of trunk. Splenius muscles. C5 , C6.

SEER Training: Structure of Skeletal Muscle

Assists in elevation of the thoracic rib cage. Alone, lateral flexion of vertebral column ; Together, depression of thoracic rib cage. Crista iliaca , ligamentum inguinale. S3 , S4. S4 and twigs from inferior anal nerves of pudendal nerve. Superficial perineal pouch. Deep perineal pouch.

The musculoskeletal system

Serratus anterior muscle. Retracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall. Sternocostal head : anterior surface of the sternum , the superior six costal cartilages. Clavicular head : flexes the humerus Sternocostal head : extends the humerus As a whole, adducts and medially rotates the humerus.

It also draws the scapula anteriorly and inferiorly. Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk. Medial pectoral nerves C8 , T1. Depresses the clavicle. Rhomboid major , Rhomboid minor , Trapezius.

Hand Safety

Latissimus dorsi. Subscapular and circumflex scapular arteries. Lower subscapular nerve segmental levels C5 and C6. Internal rotation of the humerus.


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Musculocutaneous nerve Lateral cord : C5 , C6 , C7. Triceps brachii muscle. Profunda brachii. Biceps brachii muscle.

Lateral epicondyle of the humerus. Profunda brachii , recurrent interosseous artery. Stabilises the elbow and abducts the ulna during pronation. Bases of second and third metacarpal bones. Flexion and abduction at wrist. Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle , Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle.

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Three types of muscle

Extensor carpi radialis brevis , Extensor carpi radialis longus , Extensor carpi ulnaris. Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. Extensor digitorum muscle. Also occasionally a small origin slightly on the medial epicondyle of the ulna. The base of the distal phalanx of the thumb. Anterior interosseous artery. Anterior interosseous nerve branch of median nerve C8 , T1. Extensor pollicis longus muscle , Extensor pollicis brevis muscle. Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle , Flexor digitorum profundus muscle. Flexor digiti minimi brevis. Common extensor tendon lateral epicondyle , ulna.

Flexor carpi ulnaris. Lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus. Distal radius Radial styloid process. Flexion of forearm. Flexor carpi radialis muscle. Lateral epicondyle of the humerus , supinator crest of ulna , radial collateral ligament , annular ligament. Lateral proximal radial shaft. Pronator teres , Pronator quadratus. Anatomical snuff box. Adductor pollicis muscle. Flexor pollicis longus muscle , Flexor pollicis brevis muscle. Or upload a file: Use a example sequence Clear sequence See more example inputs. If you plan to use these services during a course please contact us.

Read our Privacy Notice if you are concerned with your privacy and how we handle personal information. STEP 1 - Enter your input sequences Enter or paste a set of sequences in any supported format : Or upload a file: Use a example sequence Clear sequence See more example inputs. Each bundle is wrapped in a thin skin called perimysium say perry-miss-ee-um. Inside the muscles there are nerves which carry messages to and from the brain. There are also blood vessels, which carry the energy that your muscles need and also carry away waste that your muscles have finished with.

Muscles move parts of your body around. Many of them are attached to your bones and are called skeletal muscles, because it is their job to move your bones. Some are attached from one part of an organ to another part such as the muscles in your heart. If you want to keep warm in winter, then exercise , and keep those muscles moving.

Muscles need to move to keep healthy and strong. Have you heard the saying, "Use it or lose it"? Probably not, as it is usually said to older people who don't exercise enough! You can help your muscles stay strong and healthy by exercising every day and using different sets of muscles when you exercise.

Big Guns: The Muscular System - CrashCourse Biology #31

When you exercise a lot, your muscles get tired from all that contracting and relaxing. Your muscles might hurt then. The next day they can still be sore if you have not exercised them much before. Strains can happen when muscles are stretched too far. Some of the muscle fibres can be torn and there can be bruising inside the muscle.

It can take several days for the fibres to heal and the bruising to go away. Have you ever had cramp?


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  • This is when your muscles seem to lock up, and you have a pain in your foot or your leg, or a 'stitch' in your side? This happens when one or more of your muscles contracts and will not relax again called a spasm. Polio is a virus that attacks the spinal cord. The brain can't send messages to the muscles and they stop working. Not long ago a lot of kids and many adults would catch this illness, but nowadays not many people get poliomyelitis, that's its full name - say 'po-li-o-my-eh-lite-us because kids are given an immunisation against it. Look at our topic on Immunisation if you would like to know more.

    Tetanus also affects muscles, and kids will have already had 'shots' to stop them getting this too. There are some other diseases that can affect muscles. Maybe you know someone who has muscular dystrophy , multiple sclerosis or cerebral palsy? To grow strong healthy muscles you don't need to be a weightlifter.


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    • In fact lifting weights before you are fully grown can damage your body. Have a healthy well balanced diet and exercise every day. Eating fruit, vegetables, potatoes, pasta and bread will give you the glucose you need to fuel your muscles. Because your muscles are made of protein, a healthy diet which has milk products, fish and meat will help your muscles to get the protein they need to build up to be strong and healthy.

      We've provided this information to help you to understand important things about staying healthy and happy.

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