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Hospitals Mum's world 'falling apart' as son, 8, diagnosed with completely terminal tumour. Police Teenager found dead in underpass by police after early-morning call. Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the s.

In the Lok Sabha discussions in , the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. Bombay Citizens' Committee , an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status. Following protests during the movement in which people lost their lives in clashes with the police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs. In the late s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. The textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the widespread Great Bombay Textile Strike , in which nearly , workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike.

On 1 October , the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban , though they continued to be administered by same Municipal Administration. From to , there has been an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. On 12 March , a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in deaths and over injuries.

Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub.


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Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district , which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan. The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy.

The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season. Flooding during monsoon is a major problem for Mumbai. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The average annual temperature is In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from Air pollution is a major issue in Mumbai.

Mumbai is India's largest city by population and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6. Until the s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include finance , engineering , diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology.

State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self-employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India. Its population as per the census was 12,, Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies.

The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee. It scored 3. The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government , and oversee the national elections held in the city.

Mumbai also has a special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities TADA court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city. Mumbai had been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress , also known as the Congress Party.

The s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June , out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay. In the national elections , all six parliamentary constituencies were won by the BJP and Shiv Sena in alliance, with both parties winning three seats each. In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.

In the state assembly elections , out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 15 were won by the BJP, 14 by the Shiv Sena and 5 by the Congress. Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the MCGM. The Mumbai Suburban Railway , popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system.

The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network. The Monorail opened in early February Mumbai's bus services carried over 5. Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant diesel and compressed natural gas powered buses. Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.

The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercrafts and catamarans. Services are provided by both government agencies as well as private partners. They were subsequently scrapped due to lack of adequate infrastructure. Mumbai had about , private vehicles as of March , [] 56, black and yellow taxis as of [update] , [] and , auto rickshaws, as of May The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport formerly Sahar International Airport is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic.

The proposed Navi Mumbai International airport to be built in the Kopra- Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport. The city is also the headquarters of the Western Naval Command , and also an important base for the Indian Navy. Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai, with many localities having been named after them.

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The MCGM supplies potable water to the city from six lakes, [] [] most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway. Ltd Mahavitaran in the suburbs. Cooking gas is supplied in the form of liquefied petroleum gas cylinders sold by state-owned oil companies, [] as well as through piped natural gas supplied by Mahanagar Gas Limited.

The largest telephone service provider is the state-owned MTNL , which held a monopoly over fixed line and cellular services up until , and provides fixed line as well as mobile WLL services. As of [update] , Mumbai had the highest number of internet users in India with The architecture of the city is a blend of Gothic Revival , Indo-Saracenic , Art Deco , and other contemporary styles.

Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University , were built in Gothic Revival style. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami. In the newer suburbs, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has by far the largest number of skyscrapers in India, with existing buildings and under construction as of [update].

The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee MHCC , established in , formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. On the West coast are former-textile mills being demolished and skyscrapers built on top.

According to the census , the population of Mumbai city was 12,, The population density is estimated to be about 20, persons per square kilometre. The living space is 4. The sex ratio in was females per 1, males in the island city, in the suburbs, and as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of females per 1, males. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male migrants who come to the city to work. Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries : widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population.

With available land at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. Many of them live in close proximity to bus or train stations although suburban residents spend significant time travelling southward to the main commercial district.

The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the — decade was 1. The number of households in Mumbai is forecast to rise from 4. The religious groups represented in Mumbai as of include Hindus Native Christians include East Indian Catholics , who were converted by the Portuguese during the 16th century, [] while Goan and Mangalorean Catholics also constitute a significant portion of the Christian community of the city.

Mumbai has a large polyglot population like all other metropolitan cities of India. Sixteen major languages of India are spoken in Mumbai, with the most common being Marathi and its dialect East Indian ; as well as Hindi , Gujarati and English. A colloquial form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya — a blend of Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Konkani , Urdu , Indian English and some invented words — is spoken on the streets.

Among minority languages of Maharashtra, Hindi is spoken by Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music, and theatres. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment, and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. Mumbai's history as a major trading centre has led to a diverse range of cultures, religions, and cuisines coexisting in the city.

This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period. Mumbai is the birthplace of Indian cinema [] — Dadasaheb Phalke laid the foundations with silent movies followed by Marathi talkies —and the oldest film broadcast took place in the early 20th century. The Mumbai International Film Festival [] and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards , the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai. Contemporary art is featured in both government-funded art spaces and private commercial galleries.

Built in , the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city. Mumbai has a zoo named Jijamata Udyaan formerly Victoria Gardens , which also harbours a garden. The rich literary traditions of the city have been highlighted internationally by Booker Prize winners Salman Rushdie , Aravind Adiga. Marathi literature has been modernised in the works of Mumbai-based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar , and Gangadhar Gadgil , and is promoted through an annual Sahitya Akademi Award , a literary honour bestowed by India's National Academy of Letters.

Mumbai residents celebrate both Western and Indian festivals. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. Beaches are a major tourist attraction in the city. Mumbai has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi dailies enjoy the maximum readership share in the city and the top Marathi language newspapers are Maharashtra Times , Navakaal , Lokmat , Loksatta , Mumbai Chaufer , Saamana and Sakaal. Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages.

Numerous Indian and international television channels can be watched in Mumbai through one of the Pay TV companies or the local cable television provider. The metropolis is also the hub of many international media corporations, with many news channels and print publications having a major presence. The national television broadcaster, Doordarshan , provides two free terrestrial channels, while three main cable networks serve most households.

News channels entirely dedicated to Mumbai include Sahara Samay Mumbai. Zing a popular Bollywood gossip channel is also based out of Mumbai. Satellite television DTH has yet to gain mass acceptance, due to high installation costs. Bollywood , the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around — films every year. This led filmmaking to new heights in terms of quality, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances such as special effects and animation.

Mumbai is a hub of Indian film making.

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Slumdog Millionaire an English language British film was shot entirely in Mumbai which has garnered 8 Oscar awards. Schools in Mumbai are either "municipal schools" run by the MCGM or private schools run by trusts or individuals , which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The MCGM also imparts secondary education to 55, students through its 49 secondary schools.

The University of Mumbai is one of the premier [] universities in India. School of Art is Mumbai's oldest art institution. Cricket is more popular than any other sport in the city. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions generally referred to as gully cricket are played everywhere. Mumbai has two international cricket grounds, the Wankhede Stadium and the Brabourne Stadium. The first cricket test match in India was played in Mumbai at the Bombay Gymkhana. Mumbai's first professional American football franchise , [] the Mumbai Gladiators , played its first season, in Pune , in late Matches in the city are played at the Mahindra Hockey Stadium.

The opening ceremony was also held in Mumbai while the finals in Delhi. In the final they lost 3—4 to the Chennai Smashers. Rugby is another growing sport in Mumbai with league matches being held at the Bombay Gymkhana from June to November. Every February, Mumbai holds derby races at the Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Syed Musthaq Ali Trophy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mumbai disambiguation. Megacity and state capital in Maharashtra, India. Megacity in Maharashtra, India.

Coat of arms. Main articles: History of Mumbai and Timeline of Mumbai. Main article: History of Bombay in Independent India. Main article: Geography of Mumbai. See also: Mumbai flood. Main article: Climate of Mumbai. Main article: Economy of Mumbai. The Mumbai Suburban Railway system carries more than 6. It has the highest passenger density of any urban railway system in the world. Mumbai Metro provides connectivity with eastern and western part of city.

The Mumbai Monorail opened in February BEST buses carry a total of 2. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link is a cable-stayed bridge that connects central Mumbai with its western suburbs. Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust is the busiest port in India. Main article: Public transport in Mumbai. See also: Mumbai's water sources. See also: Heritage structures in Mumbai. See also: Growth of Mumbai. Main article: Mumbai culture. See also: List of Mumbai radio stations.

Brabourne Stadium , one of the oldest cricket stadiums in the country.

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